HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TAEKWONDO
Koguryo and Silla Dynasties
The origin of Taekwondo in Korea can be traced back to the Koguryo dynasty, founded 37B.C. since mural paintings foung in the ruins of the royal tombs built by that dynasty show scenes of Taekwondo practice. Taekwondo was also practiced during the Silla dynasty. Korean culture and martial arts of the period were strongly influenced and enriched by the Hwarangdo, a military, educational and social organization and noble youths of the Silla dynasty. The code of honor on which the Hwarang was based was loyalty to the nation, respect and obedience to one's 'parents, faithfulness to one's friends, courage in battle and avoidance of unnecessary violence and killing.
Archaeological findings such as mural paintings on the royal tombs of the Koguryo dynasty, the stone sculptures of pagodas of temples produced during the Silla period, and scattered descriptions in written documents show that many fighting stances, skills and formalized movements closely resemble the present stanc es and forms of Taekwondo. Therefore, it can be inferred that people in the three kingdoms practiced an art very like the one we study today.
Koryo and YI Dynasties
In the history of Koryo, Taekwondo which was then termed "Subak" was practiced not only as a skill to improve health and as a sport activity but it was also encouraged as a martial art of considerably high value. Subak is believed to have gained its highest popularity during the reign of King Uijong, between 1,147 and 1,170 A.D. This period roughly corresponds to the era that includes part of the Chinese Song and Ming dynasties, during which the Chinese "Kungfu" became widely popular. This is worth noticing as it further shows that Taekwondo is not only of a pure Korean origin but it has achieved independent development throughout the long history of Korea.
What is very important about Subak in the Yi dynasty is that there was a book published to teach the game as a martial art and that it became more popular among the general public whereas earlier it had been to a certain degree monopolized by the military in the preceding Koryo dynasty. King Chongjo published "M uye Dobo Tongji," an illustrated textbook on martial arts, which included Taekwondo as one of the major chapters. It is obvious, therefore, that Subak became an important national sport and attracted much attention from both the royal court and the general public during the Yi dynasty.
However, in the latter half of the Yi dynasty, the importance of Subak as a martial art began to decline due to negligence of the royal court, which was constantly disturbed by strife between feuding political factions. As a result, Subak remained merely as a recreational activity for odinary people.
Taekwondo in the first half of the 20th century:
Along with the deterioration of national fortunes, the fall of the military was accelerated by the dismantling of the army; finally Japanese imperialists colonised Korea through an oppressive forceful invasion. The oppression of the Korean people by the Japanese imperialists worsened, and the practicing of martial arts, which could have been used as a means of revolt, was forbidden.
However, Taekwondo persisted in the spirit of the Korean people as a physical and spiritual training method of anti-japanese organiza-tions such as the Indepedence Army and the Liberation Army, and as a legacy which had to pass on to the younger generation.
After liberation from the Japanese invasion on August 15, 1945, those with an aspiration to revitalize the traditional art of Taekwondo taught their followers, and at last, on September 16, 1961, the Korea Taekwondo Association was established. On February 25, 1962, the Korea Taekwondo Association became the 27th affiliate to join the Korea Amateur Sports Association. On October 9, 1963, Taekwondo became an official event for the first time in the 44th National Athletic Meet. Its great leaps in the development of competition rules and protective equipment started with that meet.
Korean instructors began going abroad to teach Taekwondo in the 1960s, which could be called a turning point in the history of Taekwondo. Taekwondo made its way to the world sport through the 1st World Taekwondo Championships held in Seoul, Korea in May 1973 with participation of 19 countries. At the Seoul meet held on May 28, 1973 on the occasion of the championships, representatives of those countries established the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF).
In 1996, member countries of the WTF totaled 144 and the global Taekwondo population is estimated at 30 million people. Spurred by the recognition of Taekwondo by the IOC at its 83rd General Session in 1980, Taekwondo has been rapidly developing an international sport. It was adopted as a demonstration sport of the 24th Seoul O lympics in 1988 and the 25th Barcelona Olympics in 1992.
Taekwondo was adopted as an official sport of 2000 Sydney Olympic Games at the 103rd Session of the IOC held in Paris, France on September 4, 1994. Taekwondo has consolidated its position in the world sport as fast as any other martial art. Continental championships are hosted by four member regional unions of the WTF. There is World and Women's World Championships, World Cup Taekwondo, CISM Taekwondo Championships and FISU World University Championships. Taekwondo is being played as an official sport in most international multi-sport games such as World Games, Pan American Games, All Africa Games, Southeast Asian Games and Cental American Games.
REFERENCES TO THE CHINESE KUNGFU AND THE JAPANESE KARATE
Some people believe that Korean Taekwondo was originated from Kungfu, the Chinese self-defense art. According to a Chinese document, the Chinese art of self-defense is believed to have been initiated as a sort of physical exercise when the Bodhi Dharma taught the monks of Hsiaolin Temple in Tungpung County, Honan Province, China. Bodhi Dharma, a great Indian Buddhist Zen master, came to China in 520 A.D.and spent nine years at Hsiaolin Temple where he introduced the art of self-defense. However, if we recall that the mural paintings of Taekwondo in the ancient tombs of Koguryo belong to the period 3 A.D. to 427A.D., it cannot be said that the Korean Taekwondo owes its origin to the Chinese Kungfu.
No detailed record is available when Karate, the Japanese self-defense art equivalent to Taekwondo, was initiated. There are two-fold explanations about it. One explanation is that a Chinese named Chen Yuanpin, who lived in the late Ming dynasty, was naturalized as a Japanese and imparted the Chinese "Kungfu" to the Japanese people. The other explanation says that Karate is a developed form of "Okinawate," a sel f-defense art indigenous to Okinawa. However, when the Okinawate itself began is not known either. In order to trace the origin of Okinawate, we might rely on "The Historical Record of Chosun(another name for the Yi dynasty)" which only says that envoys from the Ryukyu Island made frequent visits to bring tribute to the Kings of Chosun.
At that time in Korea, "Subak", an old name of Taekwondo, has gained great popularity among the people, and therefore it is not unlikely that the envoys from Okinawa learned that game and introduced to their people. This speculation is not too absurd when we recall the fact that "Nul", the Korean see-saw, was also adopted by the people of Okinawa from Korea. It may be concluded that the Japanese Karate, in turn, derives from Taekyon or Subak, the primitive form of Taekwondo.